It has been circulating on the Internet a very complex and controversial theory. It is called the theory of the Astronaut Gods. This theory is based on the idea that aliens visited Earth in the ancient past and that there are historical texts, archaeological records and various legends containing evidences of such contacts.
This theory was popularized by authors such as Erich von Däniken and Zecharia Sitchin. Much of the evidence presented by the proponents of this theory are archaeological artefacts, megalithic monuments, legends, myths and stories that are interpreted according to the theory.
Although I’m a believer in the existence of extraterrestrials and their visits, I’ll try to have a more rational and objective perspective on the subject and I’ll try to demonstrate that some of these theories lack substantiation and in many cases are devoid of any truth.
Pumapunku is an archaeological site consisting of a large complex of temples and monuments, located in Tiwanaku, Bolivia. The term originates from the Aymara language and means “The Door of the Puma”.
The complex consists of temples and monuments, formed with stone megalithic style. The main site has 167 meters long by 116 meters wide. The eastern edge of Pumapunku is occupied by what is called the “Plataforma Lítica “, a stone terrace of 6.75 by 38.72 meters. This terrace is paved with multiple huge stone blocks. The main material used in construction in Pumapunku consists of clay, while the finishing is sand and boulders. 12 excavations were conducted at the site that proved the existence of three distinct periods of construction.
The defenders of the astronaut Gods, argue that Pumapunku, in Bolivia, is such unique in how it was built and shaped that is the most intriguing place on the planet and in such a way that the Giza pyramids compared to Pumapunku are just child’s play, and this because this site would have been built by aliens.
The constructors of the complex, would have used stones of granite and diorite in the construction and since the diorite is a extremely hard stone, it can only be cut with diamond or an electric saw. The authors also argue that certain tests have been performed and that they concluded that the by the characteristics of the stone, a tool with a diamond would have been used.
The defenders of the astronaut Gods begin with an embarrassing way, as they intend to make people believe that it was absolutely impossible for the ancient people to build Pumapunku, even to the point of making false claims openly. The stones used in Pumapunku are not granite or diorite, but red sandstone and andesite.
Another misinformation concerns the weight that some of these stones would have had. Proponents of the theory claim that there is a block with 800 tons when it is known that the heaviest stone has just 130 tons and the other stones are much lighter than that.
The sandstone and andesite stones of Pumapunku would have been easily shaped with the most basic tools of work, since the red sandstone is relatively soft and easy to shape. So the idea that a diamond tip or chainsaws have been used is ridiculous. They are even known methods of how the hardest stones were shaped, which was by using other stones to beat each other to create depressions and wear. Then sand was used as an abrasive agent to wear the stone until a polished surface was obtained.
In Pumapunku stones can be seen in various stages of completion, where you can verify the usage of the technical works used in stone and in the grinding and polishing of them. However the theorists never speak of these unfinished stones.
There are also unmistakable evidence of stone hammers that were used in the construction site, so I don’t understand the statement of the defenders of this theory when they argue that tools with cutting laser technology would have been used, because if so, what is the explanation of having those hammers side by side with such sophisticated weapons?
Different studies have shown how these cuts were made, and nothing spectacular was required, except some metal tools, such as chisels. The arguments against this statement, are generally that a particular culture didn’t know how to use metals or copper chisels by that time. This statement is completely devoid of truth, as we know that the pre-Inca Andean cultures were very skilled in creating and shaping metal alloys.
In fact, the people who built Pumapunku had the knowledge to pour out copper alloys into moulds and had more than enough skills to form all kinds of metal tools. And they even used an alloy of nickel and arsenic in order to strengthen the copper.
The defenders of the theory of the astronaut Gods claim that the accuracy of the blocks and their cut at angles of 90 degrees would be impossible to achieve unless those people had help from aliens.
Well, to make flat surfaces to have right angles, it is not necessary any alien technology. You only need a square or a simple equivalent. It is important to keep in mind that Pumapunku would have been built after 1000 years of the Egyptian civilization, which by that time had all sorts of plummets, levels and so on, so this type of tools to work with stones was pretty basic.
They also stated that all blocks in H shape have the same dimensions, suggesting that they were made by a huge machine, but the H blocks are not equal, although they have similar dimensions, which can prove that they were not made based on the same plans.
They claim that Pumapunku was built by the Aymara Indians, and they had no method of writing, so how could they build such a complex without making plans to build plants, how the stones would fit together and where they should fit?
Pumapunku builders may not have had an alphabet, but they used the common iconography called Mama Yaya. All icons contained in the construction are Mama Yaya and there is no secret or alien iconography. Many cultures have used images instead of an alphabet and, for most of the construction plans, they used images like plants. Thus, to say that they didn’t have an alphabet, does not mean they did not have building plans.
Believers in astronaut Gods, also argue that the only rational process to lift such huge heavy stones, it would be through levitation, anti-gravity or large lifting vehicles, ie something that only the aliens possessed. In addition to that the construction is situated at an altitude of 12,800 feet, having no trees growing in thar area, thus meaning there were no trees to be harvested and used as wooden rollers to make possible to transport the stones.
Through simple observation of the stones, it is possible to verify that many of them have grooves with several centimeters in width and depth in two adjacent faces for the use of ropes. So if they knew how to levitate these stones, why putting those slots? Regarding the issue of the trees, there is no mystery, since it is enough that they had descended the mountain to get trees a bit more below. And to make things to get worse for the astronaut Gods theory, according to the archaeologist Jean-Pierre Protzen, expert Pumapunku, there is almost no stone in the Pumapunku site that does not have what he calls “drag marks” on one their faces, which means they were dragged to the construction site.
Proponents claim that Pumapunku is illogical, since it seems that the entire complex was mysteriously destroyed like it had a huge force slaughtered on the place and destroyed the entire complex.
I think the lack of logic is something that does not happens in Pumapunku. To quote the archaeologist Alexi Vranich: “The high quality of the stones made them attractive building material for houses, churches, squares, bridges, and even railways.” In other words, the stones were pulled down, dragged by locals, to be used as construction material.
The theory believers claim Pumapunku is aged 17 thousand years, however, the site was dated using a variety of methods, such as carbon dating; the type of metal used, the wreckage found in certain places; the type of iconography and they all reached the same conclusion: It was built in the early Middle Ages.
Proponents also argue that the temple is oriented to a certain place in the sky, aligned with the constellations, but let’s be objective, because in fact any construction can somehow be aligned with any constellation.
Finally, they defend a very interesting theory which states that at the time the Spaniards arrived on the scene and asked the Incas how they had built the place, he king of the Incas have said: “It was not our ancestors who built it. This was done by the gods in a single night. “
If we stop and think for a while on this alleged statement, we are faced with an apparent contradiction, since we have a king who denies his people had made an extraordinary achievement and by referring the work to the gods. It is even more strange that the monarch has admitted that the Incas have had ancestors, since part of their religion stated that the Inca Empire was the first civilization and was created by god himself. Admitting that there was a pre-Inca culture with much more skills than they would have been a very strange statement.
I would like the reader to be aware that, unlike many skeptics of the ancient astronaut theory, I admit that something unusual may have happened in the past and that there are certain consistent themes with ancient mythologies that require good explanations, which I think is not the case of Pumapunku.